“~ed” vs. “~ing” (Feelings/emotions)

To provide understanding on a specific grammar point so that motivated students can become stronger, and more natural, English speakers/writers.

While marking some speeches that the 3nensei wrote about their school trip to Tokyo, I noticed a lot of the same mistakes being repeated and repeated… so much so that I decided to make note of it and ask the 3nensei teacher if we could dedicate a lesson to discuss this once 2nd semester started up.

The common mistakes are misusing “~ed” and “~ing” when discribing states of feeling. For example, I often saw: “It was very excited”, “I was surprising!”, “I was very exciting!”

While in some cases the meaning can be discovered relatively easily, but it some cases it was very confusing and hard to tell what the student actually meant. Who was excited? What excited who? What was exciting to everyone?

Note that this is a rather advanced topic and most students might not understand it, but for the sake of those wanting to excell in English and continue studying it, I essentially told my OTE that we are doing it. lol

The lesson to address this is as follows:

1. Pass out  both pages of the normal handout and begin teaching the vocabulary, and continue to cover both the “~ing” and “~ed” points. Have the OTE confirm and explain the meaning in Japanese where needed. Expect to do a lot of writing on the blackboard while you explain the meanings of sentences. Draw arrows, color-code, circle things. Throw in extra examples and draw diagrams on the board to help convey meaning before translating into Japanese.

2.Before continuing to the “Compare these examples” section, pull up the attached powerpoint example which uses the word “scare”. I chose to include scare because it is a bit of an exception word as in adjective form, you would say “scary”, not “scaring” (unless you have two objects to show what is scaring who). “Scary” is also a rather common word to use, so I think it’s important to cover.

3.Continue through the handout while periodically checking for understanding. Then work through the second page of the handout with the example using the word “excite”.

The goal is to focus on getting the students familiar with the pattern of the usage, not necessarily memorizing grammatical rules. Therefore, this exercise is heavy with examples. My hope is that maybe one student per class will actually study them well or keep them for high school. lol.

-The fill-in-the-blanks worksheet attached is to be used as a warm-up review in the following class. It’s important to refresh and review material, especially on a topic that is rather difficult, so try not to forget this follow-up.


  • For my class it took one class to get up to “Compare these examples” on the first page and go through the powerpoint on “scary”. The following class we continued through the first page, finished page 2 on “excite”, and gave students the rest of the class (about 10minutes) to work through the worksheet. The class after that we checked the worksheet as a review/warm-up activity. First we put students into groups of 4 and had them discuss with each other their answers, and explain why they answered that way. After about 5 minutes we checked the answers as a class on the board, awarding stampcard points to teams who volunteered an answer.
  • When you get to “compare these examples”, don’t just let the OTE double check the Japanese meaning for the kids. Ask the kids for the Japanese. Oddly enough, students volunteered answers for these in all my classes. I think that the higher difficulty level of the topic engaged those kids who are keen about English, but usually more shy.
  • Don’t forget to confirm with your OTE on where he/she should jump in an explain in Japanese. In my classes, I just look at my OTE, slightly nod, and she translates any exceedingly difficult points.


Overall, this lesson worked out really well. My OTE did not mind it taking as long as it did because she saw the value in the students learning this. I did mention to the class that this was not something they absolutely needed to understand for JHS, and was more for those who wanted to pursue English into HS or university. Letting them know that this was a bonus lesson helped them feel more relaxed about it, I think.

  • I marked this as being for HS as well, even though I have only done this in JHS, because I think it could be useful.
  • I created the explanations and examples myself, and some of it was hard to break down a lot, without losing important points. That said, if you find any of my explanations too convoluted, please feel free to adjust them as you see fit.
  • Best suited to well-behaved classes who are okay with listening and taking notes.
Lesson Topics
Junior High
High School
attached worksheet, PowerPoint